Members Area / Discipline & Performance
Please remember the advice given here is only basic - you should ALWAYS consult one of the trained JBB Discipline Friends.
- Quick Reference Guide - A basic summary of your main terms and conditions
- Advice Card - Police (Conduct) Regulations 2008
- Protocol for liaison during investigations
- Code of Conduct for Police Officers
- You and the police complaints system
- The Police (Conduct) Regulations 2012
Allegations against members do not always arise from complaints from the public. There are instances where members may be suspected of having committed a criminal or disciplinary offence either as a result of a complaint, an allegation from a fellow Officer or from some other source, which may result in a formal investigation. In any such case, members may be subject to both a criminal investigation and an internal disciplinary investigation. Where there is a criminal investigation a member has the same rights as any individual who is investigated for an alleged criminal offence under the provisions of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.
The IPCC has set out guidance for complaints and state the complaints system must:
- be coherent and consistent - wherever a complaint is handled within the system it is handled according to the same principles; while the principles of management and local ownership encourage managers to take responsibility for local resolution of complaints the principles of natural justice dictate that this may not be the case where the manager has a conflict of interest to the degree that a complainant might reasonably suspect that they might not handle the complaint fairly;
- be values driven - reflecting the values of the IPCC;
- respect people - people are respected through being kept informed by being treated fairly and in a way which reflects their diversity, people includes all individuals involved in the complaint, not just the complainant;
- demonstrate police accountability
- operate to improve standards
- be just and proportionate
- increase public confidence in police activity
- be timely and effective - the IPCC have an expectation that the local resolution process should usually be concluded and the outcome notified to the complainant within 28 days, unless in exceptional circumstances the complainant has specifically consented to an extension of time. This is not a rigid time limit, effective complaint resolution and satisfaction of the complainant are the primary factors;
- be open to public scrutiny
If you are the subject of a complaint and want the services of a "friend" or to be represented by a solicitor, contact your JBB Office and one will be supplied.
It is vitally important and very much in your own interests that you notify the Federation Office as soon as you know or believe that you may be under investigation. Delay in notifying can put you at risk.
A member has the right to consult with this "friend" at all stages of the investigation. It is important to seek advice at the earliest possible stage and certainly prior to making any formal statement.
All officers who become aware that a complaint has been made against them, or are under criminal investigation, should immediately seek advice from their Federation representative, before making any statements, written or verbal, or answering any questions. If at any time they are pressed by investigating officers to answer questions, etc., they should politely reply that they have been advised to first consult a 'friend'. They should also state that they wish a 'friend' or in appropriate cases their legal advisor to be present at any interview.
Officers who are called upon to attend for interview, should ascertain first, whether they are under investigation, and if so, should consider asking a 'friend' to accompany them.
The full extent of the allegation may not be known until the service of a notice in writing is made. The notice is worded with the allegation(s) and contains the following information:
Whilst you do not have say anything it may harm your case if you do not mention when questioned, or when providing any information under these Regulations, something which you later rely on in any misconduct or appeal proceedings.
Based on the information available at this time the conduct described above, if proven or admitted, has been assessed as amounting to misconduct/gross misconduct and if there is a case to answer may require your attendance at a misconduct meeting/hearing.
1. This notice has been issued to inform you at the earliest possible stage that an allegation has been made that you may have breached the Standards of Professional Behaviour and that there is to be an investigation into your conduct in accordance with the Police (Conduct) Regulations 2008 or the Police (Complaints and Misconduct) Amendment Regulations 2008.
2. The fact that you have been given this notice does not necessarily mean that misconduct proceedings will be taken against you but is given to safeguard your interests. As such you should retain any documents or other material already in your possession or make any notes that may assist you in responding to the allegation(s).
3. You have the right to seek advice from your staff association and be advised, represented and accompanied to any interview, meeting or hearing by a 'police friend' who must be a member of the police service or a nominee of your staff association and who is not otherwise involved in the matter. A special constable may be represented by a police officer or police staff member.
4. Within 10 working days of being given this notice, (excluding Saturdays, Sundays or Bank Holidays), unless this period is extended by the investigator, you may provide a written or oral statement relating to any matter under investigation. You or your police friend may provide any relevant documents to the investigator or suggest any particular line of enquiry. Failure to mention any fact which you later rely upon in your defence may lead to an adverse inference being drawn in any subsequent misconduct proceedings.
5. If following service of this notice the likely form of any misconduct proceedings taken is revised then you will be given a further written notice explaining the reasons for that change as soon as practicable.
6. Within 4 weeks of the start of the investigation and then within 4 weeks of any previous notification you will be kept up to date with the progress of the investigation by the Investigating Officer and you will also be informed if there is likely to be any undue delay in completing the procedure. Whatever the outcome of the allegation, you will be informed of the result. At the conclusion of the investigation, if direction is given to withdraw the case then you will be provided with a copy of the investigator's report or such parts of that report as relate to you. (Subject to the harm test)
7. Where the case is referred to misconduct proceedings you will be given written notice of the referral, a copy of any statement made by you to the investigator, a copy, of the investigator's report or such parts of that report as relate to you and any other relevant document gathered in the course of the investigation. (Subject to the harm test)
8. If the case is referred to misconduct proceedings, the decision at the meeting or hearing will be determined on the standard of proof required in civil cases, which is the balance of probabilities.
9. If the case is referred to a Misconduct Hearing or Special Case Hearing you have the right to be represented by Counsel or solicitor. If you elect not to be so represented you may be represented by a police friend, however if you elect not to be legally represented this does not prevent you being dismissed or receiving any other disciplinary outcome.
10. Outcomes available in misconduct proceedings;
- Misconduct not found
- No further action
- Management advice
- Written warning (12 months)
- Final written warning (18 months)
- Misconduct not found
- No further action
- Management advice
- Written warning (12 months)
- Final written warning (18 months)
- Extension of final written warning (in exceptional cases only)
- Dismissal with notice (minimum of 28 days)
- Dismissal without notice
11. You can confidentially access support via:-
The Employee Support Helpline on 0800 2471106 (open 24 hours)
Further advice can be obtained from the IPCC website by visiting IPCC Website - Info for Police
It is recommended that you contact your Federation Representative to discuss this notice.
Paragraph 2.113 Home office Guidance
The object of interviewing an officer about a possible failure to meet standards is twofold; first to provide the officer concerned with an opportunity to give his or her account of the matter and, second, to enable the officer to offer any explanatory detail which might serve to explain or defend the matter. The officer may not be compelled to answer any questions put to him or her during interview. Interviews should be tape-recorded.
Tape Recording of Interviews
Tape recorded interviews under the criminal caution must be conducted in accordance with the Codes of Practice on 'The Tape Recording of Police Interviews with Suspects at Police Stations.'
The Home Office Guidance on Codes of Practice states:
'There is no requirement in the Codes of Practice to tape record an interview with a police officer against whom a complaint has been made of behaviour which does not amount to an allegation of a Criminal Offence which is indictable or triable either way.'
There are a number of allegations which may lead to Criminal and/or Misconduct proceedings; for example an allegation of assault, where an interview for a possible criminal offence has been tape recorded. The tape recording will be admissible in a Misconduct hearing relating to the same matter.
The Police Federation offers the following advice where a Misconduct or Criminal/Misconduct interview is tape-recorded.
In pure Misconduct interviews, the choice to tape the interview is that of the accused officer. However, note should be taken of the guidance set out in paragraph 2.113.
The interview shall be conducted in accordance with the Codes of Practice issued by the Secretary of State under Section 60 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.
The interview should take place in a room other than in a custody suite.
Should the accused officer be charged with Misconduct Matters, no charge shall be levied for the supply of the taped record of the interview(s) to a 'Friend' or legal representative.
Where a member is the subject of a criminal investigation (i.e. where an allegation of criminal misconduct has been made against him) no request to provide a duty statement should be made, or if such a request is made this may be refused.
Where an allegation of the commission of a discipline offence has been made, then, whether or not a PCR15 has been served, a duty statement may be properly refused, it being a statement "concerning the matter".
An express assurance that a duty statement will not be used in any subsequent criminal or discipline proceedings arguably provides the member with the necessary protection to enable a statement to be made. The circumstances in which this may arise are where a civil action has been commenced against the Chief Officer and a statement is necessary to help the Chief Officer oppose or defend the action. In these circumstances preface the duty statement with:
"I have been informed that I am not the subject of a criminal or discipline allegation. I make this statement solely for the purposes of defending the civil action. I do not consent to it being used for any other purpose."
Some useful tips
Resist the temptation to bite the head of the person who comes to serve a PCR15. Remember it's not personal but they have a job to do, which they probably do not like any more than you.
It is not normally best practice to give any reply to the allegation at the time the notice is served. Be polite and simply inform that you intend to take advice from the Federation and will respond to the allegations in due course. Don't worry, as this is the reply that most Investigating Officers will expect you to make.
Always endorse the PCR15 for a copy to be disclosed to the Federation. Better still forward a copy to us immediately. Remember that if this is a case that needs a solicitor to be instructed we have to get authority from our national office at Leatherhead and this takes a few days. If we can put those wheels in motion it makes our job easier, makes it easier for the Investigating Officer (IO) and importantly it will save time in the investigation a lower your own stress levels.
Once a notice has been served there will normally be a time gap before you are interviewed. During this time the I.O. will be interviewing witnesses and will make contact with you once they are ready for an interview.
Don't worry if you do not hear from the I.O. or your 'friend' during this time. It does not mean nothing is happening. The I.O. needs to gather any evidence and your friend will be in a better position to have a meaningful discussion with you once disclosure has taken place.
Remember that whoever acts as your 'friend' will be a serving police officer and they are bound by the same Code of Conduct that you are. This means that while the 'friend' will do everything they can to help you they can not put forward a defence that they know to be false. To do so would mean that they aid and abet a discipline offence.
That said any discussion you have with your 'friend' attract the same confidentiality, as you would have in a solicitor/client relationship. The 'friend' will not disclose anything said between you.
Remember that even relatively simple complaints often take a long time to resolve. Investigation times are often longer than ideal and a file can take up to 3 months for the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) to arrive at a decision once the investigation is complete. Whilst this may not be a satisfactory state of affairs, there is no point in you getting stressed about something that is totally out of your control.
We all understand that having an outstanding complaint can be a stressful time for any officer, but try your best to remain objective. That way you will give the best account of yourself when the interview comes round. Easier to say than to do, but it makes common sense.
Remember that during an investigation, if you do have any concerns or queries your 'friend' is only a phone call away. There is no need to sit and brood unnecessarily over an issue that your friend may be able to answer for you.
Local Resolution is a new term and replaces informal resolution of a complaint. Within Local Resolution the IPCC will authorise different procedures that can be followed. The aim of the Local Resolution procedure is to provide a speedy and satisfactory resolution to a complaint without the need for formal investigation and which meets with the complainant's needs.
Certain cases will be appropriate to be dealt with under a Local Resolution process or the fast track procedure - Immediate Local Resolution. Immediate Local Resolution could take the form of:
- The person complained against being present or readily available and willing to explain his or her understanding of the incident, which has given rise to the complaint and/or willing to give an apology.
- A supervisor or another member of the force being able to give a satisfactory explanation, apology on behalf of the force, or giving undertaking to perform a course of action - training, advice, etc.